Ministry of Science, Research and Technology

Department of English Language
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Translation Studies
The Effect of the Translator’s Gender on Accuracy on literary Translation. (A case study on: And the Mountains Echoed by Khaled Hosseini)
Bahloul Salmani (Ph.D.)
Farnoosh Sohrabi
Winter 2015

به نام خدا
صورتجلسه دفاع
با تاییدات خداوند متعال جلسه دفاع از پایان نامه / رساله کارشناسی ارشد خانم فرنوش سهرابی در رشته زبان انگلیسی گرایش مترجمی زبان تحت عنوان بررسی تاثیر جنسیت مترجم در صحت ترجمه ادبی(بررسی موردی:و کوهستان به طنین آمد) که در تاریخ 24/4/93 در جلسه شورای تحصیلات تکمیلی به تائید رسیده است با حضور استاد (استادان ) راهنما ، مشاور و هیات داوران در موسسه آموزش عالی نبی اکرم (ص) در تاریخ 16/11/93 تشکیل گردید . در این جلسه ، پایان نامه / رساله فوق با موفقیت مورد دفاع قرار گرفت . نامبرده نمره به عدد ........................، به حروف ........................ و امتیاز ............................. را دریافت نمود .
استاد (استادان ) راهنما
امضاء1- دکتر بهلول سلمانی
هیات داوران
امضاء1- دکتر حسین صبوری
امضاء2- دکتر عبدالله باقری حمیدی
مدیر گروه دکتر محمود شکر الهی فر
مدیر امور پژوهشی و تحصیلات تکمیلی دکتر علی ستاری
معاونت امور پژوهشی و تحصیلات تکمیلی

To My Dear Parents And My Darling Spouse

I would like to express my deep gratitude and great appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Bahloul Salmani whose guidance and patience made me finish my thesis and his encouragement moved me to choose the topic and the research model and also to Rokhsare Sohrabi, the master of linguistics, whose knowledge and professional comments showed a new way on translation studies. I would like to thank all my professors in Nabiacram College, which did their best to increase my knowledge in translation studies.

AbstractThe process of translation involves at least two languages and variety of messages which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the source text into the target text.As it is known, in transferring the meaning some factors are involved such as the gender of translator and so on. In this research, the researcher made it clear that the gender of translator is one of these factors that affected the translation.The criteria of comparison between male and female translation was Wardaugh and in accuracy in translation was the model of Waddington Method A about accuracy in translation which had eight factors to compare translation which was involved: contresens, fauxsens, nonsense, Addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning and inappropriate linguistic variation.The data was selected from the novel “And the Mountains Echoed” and two translation of it from a male translator by the name of “Mehdi Qebrayi” and a female one by the name of “Nastaran Zahiri” and as a result it was shown that the translation of the male translator was somehow different and maybe more accurate than the female one according to Waddingtn.So, this research showed that gender of translator had some effects on the accuracy of translation in literary text.
Key words: Gender in translation, accuracy in translation, author-oriented translation.
Table of Contents
Table of contents ……………..………………………………….…………………...…….I
List of tables …………………………………………………...…………...……..…...… III
Abbreviations …………………….………………………………………...…..…….….. IV
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc411763496 \h 21.1. Overview PAGEREF _Toc411763497 \h 21.2. Sta--ent of the Problem: PAGEREF _Toc411763498 \h 41.3. Purpose of the Study: PAGEREF _Toc411763499 \h 71.4. Sta--ent of Research Questions: PAGEREF _Toc411763500 \h 71.5. Significance of the Study: PAGEREF _Toc411763501 \h 71.6. Definition of Key Terms: PAGEREF _Toc411763502 \h 9CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE2. Review of the Related Literature PAGEREF _Toc411763504 \h 112.1. Overview PAGEREF _Toc411763505 \h 112.2. Language and gender PAGEREF _Toc411763506 \h 122.3. Translation PAGEREF _Toc411763508 \h 182.4. Translation and accuracy PAGEREF _Toc411763509 \h 24CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3. Methodology PAGEREF _Toc411763511 \h 313.1. Research Method and Approaches PAGEREF _Toc411763512 \h 313.2. Corpus of the Study and samples PAGEREF _Toc411763513 \h 313.3. TheoreticalFramework PAGEREF _Toc411763514 \h 323.4. Resta--ent of Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc411763515 \h 37 PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT I
3.5. Procedure PAGEREF _Toc411763516 \h 373.6. Design PAGEREF _Toc411763517 \h 38CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4. Data Analysis, Results and Discussion PAGEREF _Toc411763519 \h 414.1. Overview PAGEREF _Toc411763520 \h 414.2. Analysis of Samples PAGEREF _Toc411763521 \h 414.3. Samples PAGEREF _Toc411763522 \h 42CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
5. Conclusion, implications and suggestions for further research PAGEREF _Toc411763524 \h 795.1. Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc411763525 \h 795.2. Pedagogical Implications PAGEREF _Toc411763526 \h 835.3. Suggestions for Further Studies PAGEREF _Toc411763527 \h 83Appendices PAGEREF _Toc411763528 \h 85Reference PAGEREF _Toc411763529 \h 107

List of Tables
TOC \h \z \c "Table 3. " Table 3. 1 The Corpus of this Study PAGEREF _Toc411763792 \h 32Table 3. 2 A sample of accurate words table of the corpus of the study of male and female translator PAGEREF _Toc411763793 \h 36 TOC \h \z \c "Table 4. " Table 4. 1 Frequency of categories applied to the translation of "And the Mountains Echoed PAGEREF _Toc411763798 \h 75

DTS: Descriptive Translation Studies
SL: Source Language
TL: Target Language
ST: Source Text
TT: Target Text

Chapter One

Chapter 1
1. Introduction1.1. Overview Every process of translation involves at least two languages and variety of messages, which can be called form and meaning. In fact, the meaning is the message which is transferred by various features and it is the task of the translator to transfer the meaning of the ST into the TT. So, depending on different factors affecting the translator's performance and the way the message is conveyed, different translations will be produced. Translation is an interdisciplinary field of study (Snell -Hornby, 1998; Bassnet, 2002; Hatim and Mundy, 2006; Rezvani, Riazi and Sahragard, 2011) and it is in connection with many other disciplines such as gender study (e.g. studying gender differences of translators on translation quality), Psychology (considering the psychological factors and their impact on translator’s performance), linguistics (the impact and the relation of any language skills on translation both oral and written). Gender of the translator is one of the factors that may affect the product of the translator, and the accuracy of translation is an important feature in evaluating any translated text. Ghodrati (1388,2009A.D. p.143)
This research aimed to work on the differences which might exist in terms of the accuracy between the translations done by male and female translators, like gender of translator.
Gender study is one of the subfields of sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society and specifically it is the descriptive study of the effect of any andall aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. It ranges from the study of the wide variety of dialects across a given region down to the analysis between the way men and women speak to one another. Ounas (2009, p.5)
Language and gender are linked and developed through man's participation in every day social practice. It is proved through various investigations that the languages of men and women are really different (Holmes 1995: 1). In the past, women were invisible, yet today they believe that they possess a different voice, different psychology, different experience of love, etc. and also different culture from that of men (Coates 1997, p.13). Many studies have been conducted so far, regarding the role of the gender "as a determinant of linguistic usage" (Stockwell 2002, p.16).
Consequently, women are considered as the subordinate group and men as the dominant one, and for this reason, females are doing their best in order to be heard by the society and express their abilities to males. But regarding their translations, it must be said since translation is the product of man's language; it must have the same characteristics as that of language. So, every translation must reflect the characteristics of the language of its translator. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
This paragraph focuses on the fact that men marginalized women within the history. So this research confirms this idea or there are some other reasons; women have been victimized so, they are not accurate in their translation. Therefore, men are somehow more accurate in translating literary text.
In the process of translating a text, the message of the original should be preserved in the translation and this shows the fidelity or faithfulness of the translator to the original text. Beekman and Callow (1989, p.33) believe that a faithful translation is the one "which transfers the meaning and the dynamics of the original text"; and by 'transferring the meaning', they mean that the translation conveys the ST information to the TT reader. According to Beekman and Callow (1989, p.34), "only as the translator correctly understands the message, can he begin to be faithful", and it is only then that "he can translate clearly & accurately". In fact, faithfulness and fidelity are two terms which show how much the TT reconstructs the ST. Ghodrati (1388, 2009 A.D. p.146)
Some translation theorists believe that the translation should be evaluated by considering its ST as "the yardstick" (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Manafi Anari (2004, p.41) defines accuracy as "the exactitude or precision of the meaning conveyed" and in fact it "implies conformity of translation with the original text in terms of fact or truth". Also, he defines 'accurate translation' as a translation "which is the reproduction of the message of the ST" (Manafi Anari 2004, p.34). Newmark (1996, p.111) believes that in translating a text, "the accuracy relates to the SL text, either to the author's meaning, or to the objective truth that is encompassed by the text", etc.According to the discussion above, accuracy can be considered as one of the representations of the faithfulness in translation, i.e. showing how accurately the translator has managed to reproduce the message of the ST into the TL.
Gender affects and influences on the process of writing and translating texts between languages.Regarding the translation accuracy, Larson (1984, p.485) believes that in some cases, when the translator tries to get the meaning of the ST and convey it to the TT, s/he may make some mistakes, either in the analysis of the ST, or in the process of conveying the meaning, and a different meaning may result; then, there is a need for a careful check regarding the accuracy of the translation. According to Method A of Waddington, the researcher decides to study if the gender of translator has any impression on accuracy in translating literary text and which one translate more accurate the male translator or female one.
1.2. Sta--ent of the Problem:Wordhaugh by distinguishing between "biological sex" and "socio-cultural gender" considers gender in language issue more cultural and context-oriented phenomenon (Wordhaugh, 2006, p.315-316). However, he considered both natural and grammatical gender sys-- in languages (Ibid, p.320). ). In addition he mentioned the phonological differences, suprasegmental, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and the communication (Ibid, p.318-320).
The problem which is dealt with here is

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